Do you believe in supernatural phenomena? Because in reality these phenomena do not actually exist, according to the discoveries of the Laws of Evolution, Astrophysics, Relativity, Quantum Physics, and Atomic Science, matter is the source of all energy and thus all of the phenomena in the universe.
"The universe is governed by the uncaring laws of matter which don't give a damn about us and will not make miracles happen on our behalf." –Thomas Alva Edison
"The belief in the Word of God is a sign of human weakness." –Albert Einstein
Below is a list of the forms of energy and the matter interactions that give rise to them:
Mechanical - movement of solid objects.
Fluidic - movement of liquids, gases and plasma.
Gravitational - attraction between two masses caused by the gravitational fields intrinsic to all elementary particles.
Thermal - randomized movement of molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles in a mass.
Chemical - covalent bonds of atoms in molecules.
Magnetic - attraction between two magnetic fields caused by the electromagnetic fields intrinsic to charged elementary particles.
Electrostatic - attraction between two electric fields caused by the electromagnetic fields intrinsic to charged elementary particles.
Electrical - movement of electrons.
Radiant - photons emitted at various rates which gives rise to the electromagnetic spectrum.
Nuclear - nuclear bonds of subatomic particles.
Antimaterial - repulsion of oppositely charged subatomic particles.
Dark - intrinsic repulsion forces of accelerons.
I. Refutation of creation and revelation:
According to a principle discovered by Stephen Hawking, the universe actually has no beginning and no end though the Big Bang is a major event in the universe. This principle is known as the multi-verse principle where several universes experience endless cycles of death and rebirth. In this principle, the matter and energy in the whole multi-verse is infinite though the matter and energy in each universe is finite. When the universe is born from a collection of compressed matter with zero distance between the subatomic particles called a singularity, a Big Bang occurs and the particles separate and fly out from the point of origin.
These particles then each have their own unique properties and give rise to plenty of different phenomena, (e.g. electrons and protons give off electromagnetic fields, the intermittent emission of photons by energized atoms are the source of fluctuating radiation, the motion and collision of a body of atoms and/or molecules gives off heat). The inertia of the moving particles then expands the boundaries of the universe.
The amount of matter initially collected in the singularity sets the net gravitational force that will be acquired by the universe. The net gravitational force sets the critical density which is the average minimum amount of mass that needs to be confined to a specific volume so that the gravitational forces will cause the particles to collide back into a singularity. When the particles expand, entropy determines the random interaction of the masses which will regulate the unification or separation of particles, if by chance the moving particles are able to move far enough from each other, the universe will lack the density for its net gravitational forces to re-integrate the particles and the universe will expand forever under the force of inertia. Our universe has reached the point where the average density is lower than the critical unification density and therefore the universe will expand forever or until the particles are absorbed by the gravity of another universe.
When the universe contracts into a singularity, it is called the Big Crunch and when the universe keeps on expanding, it is called the Big Freeze. When the universe reaches a state where entropy causes the matter-energy exchange cycles to maintain a constant average density equal to the critical density of the universe, the universe will maintain a definite size and is called a Steady State Universe.
The Big Rip is a more extreme form of expansion than the Big Freeze where the separation of the particles is accelerated by accelerons that posses an intrinsic repulsive force known as dark energy. The particles themselves are indivisible and cannot be split but they cannot combine with one another or any other particle due to their repulsive force. If a singularity generates enough particles of this form, the universe will expand at a more rapid pace and cause matter to disintegrate into radiation and elementary particles more quickly than with a Big Freeze.
The Big Bounce principle is what governs the death and rebirth of universes. It states that when the particles of a universe collide to form a singularity, the collision causes the particles to absorb each others energy and release the excess energy absorbed as photon particles. This phenomenon is called Hawking Radiation and is what causes black holes to evaporate. The spinning of the black hole is caused by the collision of particles that gather together to form it and this law also applies to the formation of planets and suns where the incoming masses do not exert compression forces in all directions equally due to entropy and the stronger incoming forces set the axis of rotation for the forming mass. The force imparted by this rotation coupled with the radiation released by the thermal activity of the particles causes the particles to gradually be discharged from the black hole. The particles that are emitted first are coming from the equator of the black hole where the tangential force is strongest. When the particles from this region receive a sufficient level of energy, their movement coupled with the rotational tangential force of the black hole will force the excited particles away from the black hole. This means that eventually the gravity of the black hole will weaken to the point that the particles can no longer be held together inside it and the heat energy of the particles will cause them to counteract the weakened gravity and separate from the singularity. This principle also applies to the universal singularity so that eventually the singularity will evaporate and another Big Bang will occur.
Each universe in the multi-verse can have its own laws of physics because each universe may carry elementary particles that are different from the elementary particles in this universe and because matter is being exchanged between the different universes, the amount of new elementary particles introduced into this universe will determine the types of new phenomena that will occur. If the particles introduced are in small number or sufficiently scattered through space, then they will only introduce micro-scale quantum phenomena that are difficult to detect and are of little impact. If a large number of new particles that are of sufficient concentration are introduced into this universe, then macro-scale observable phenomena and astrophysical scale phenomena can occur. Thus all the matter and energy in the multi-verse does not disappear or reappear it merely changes from one form to another in an endless cycle.
The summary of the possible ends of the universe are as follows:
1.) Big Crunch - if average density > critical density all particles will converge into a singularity.
2.) Big Freeze - if average density < critical density all particles will keep moving farther away from the point of origin under the influence of inertia.
3.) Big Rip - if average density < critical density and enough accelerons are produced from the Big Bang, all particles will keep moving farther away from the point of origin under the influence of inertia and dark energy but at a greatly accelerated pace.
4.) Steady State - if average density = critical density and entropy maintains the matter interactions to maintain this stability, the universe will maintain a permanent, finite volume.
The two general inter-universal interactions are as follows:
1.) Big Bounce - death and rebirth of the universe.
2.) Absorption - occurs when the gravitational field of another universe comes in contact with incoming particles from a certain universe, draws it in and increases its own mass.
The instant of creation did not occur because the elementary particles have been proven to have no beginning or end as they are indivisible packets of spherical force fields that cannot be subdivided into more fundamental components. According to the laws of matter, matter does not disappear or reappear but merely changes form. Therefore there is no instant of creation or an end to the multi-verse, making the multi-verse a completely cyclic entity. There will be no revelation or end to the multi-verse either because of the indivisibility of the elementary particles.
The multi-verse's existence has not yet been confirmed but it provides a theoretical framework for the inter-universal exchange of mass and energy and thus the cyclic nature of universes. It accounts for what will happen to matter should a Big Freeze or Rip occur instead of matter just moving into infinity. This type of framework supports the belief in a completely logical and materialistic universe with nothing supernatural or spiritual and no beginning, end or special purpose. In fact a cyclic system such as this exists only for the sake of existing and everything that exists is merely the statistical by-product of random material processes.
II. Refutation of the creation of life by divinity:
Evolution is the process by which the DNA of a life form mutates or the life form temporarily changes the way its body operates so that the life form can change its physical attributes and better adapt to its environment. One form of evolution is called the short term adaptive mechanism. This mechanism can change rapidly so that the organism can immediately adapt to its new environment if it chooses to leave the old one. An example of this is the adaptive camouflage possessed by some animals that can change the color of their skin, feathers, hair, fur and other outer coverings to blend in to their environment. The short term adaptive mechanism does not involve changes in DNA, merely an involuntary change in the way the organism's cells operate and this change is caused by information about the environment involuntarily delivered to the organism by the senses of that organism or any other means of detecting information. The other form of adaptive mechanism is called the long term adaptive mechanism and this mechanism does not immediately alter the physical attributes of the organism but rather only makes slight changes to its DNA and this new DNA is then passed on to the offspring of the new organism and that organism will also experience slight changes in its DNA before it passes the DNA to its own offspring. After passing on the DNA for several generations, the DNA will be so distorted that the latest generation of offspring will already be a new species. The short term adaptive mechanism only brings temporary changes in the way the organism's body operates but the long term adaptive mechanism completely changes the physical structure of the organism. The reason why the long term adaptive mutations in DNA take so long to effect their changes in the life form is because rapid changes cannot be made without disrupting the life support systems of the organism. A sudden disruption may even kill the life form in the process. That is why exposure to mutagens like viruses, chemicals, and radiation which cause randomized mutations can be hazardous to an organism. Another reason for the slow changes in physical structure is because the surrounding environment of the living thing does not change suddenly and furthermore, evolution is governed by the cells which collect information from the various senses or other detection methods of the organism and then involuntarily processes the information before sending signals to the DNA telling it to change itself to adapt to changes in the environment. Life itself is a product of both bio-genesis and abiogenesis. Bio-genesis refers to the voluntary actions taken by life forms to multiply while abiogenesis is the randomized chemical reaction between organic elements like carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen and phosphorous which causes the formation of organic life forms complete with feedback sensors, an organic processing unit which autonomously controls the organism by processing input data from the senses, nutrient gathering mechanisms, cell division/regenerative mechanisms and reproductive mechanisms. Certain life forms like viruses are not capable of the autonomous multiplication that cells can do and require a host to accept their DNA for multiplication. This process is similar to sexual animals that require DNA to be inputted from a sexual partner before they can generate offspring. Because the processes of life are so well understood by scientists, scientists are even capable of artificially producing life forms by simulating the chemical reactions needed to produce life in order to create artificially occurring life forms. The physical attributes of these life forms may be altered by culturing them in controlled environments. This technique is used in the creation of biological medicines and biological weapons. In conclusion, the genesis and evolution of life is a completely material process that can occur with or without external control.
Life forms are governed by completely physical processes and are the product of physical processes and not the will of a divinity.
III. Refutation of the existence of a soul as the determinant of individuality:
Free Will – is defined as the autonomous generation of thought processes and emotions which are regulated by the control instructions of the personality.
Personality – is defined as the operating system comprised of control instructions that govern behavior which are saved in the brain and are the product of genetic factors as well as external environmental stimuli. Compared to artificially simulated operating systems, the personality has several times more instructions and has a significantly more complex operation giving it greater flexibility which is necessary to perform the innumerable voluntary functions of the mind and body for survival, purpose and urge driven activities. It is possible to alter the personality by manually changing the surrounding environment or autonomously creating new control instructions and putting them in practice to eventually add or overwrite the existing ones.
The existence of unique personality traits is a product of both genetics and the environment. The genetic factor that leads to the generation of unique personality traits is the same as the one for the generation of unique physical traits. It is the imperfect replication of DNA because of a phenomenon known as entropy. Entropy states that particles in nature behave in a semi-chaotic manner meaning that not all duplicate processes can occur in precise, mathematically identical ways. There will be a certain error tolerance that will cause inexactness. Examples of this include the error tolerance of +/-5% in the resistance of electrical components because of the present day impossibility of manufacturing completely identical parts due to the minute disturbances to the production process caused by randomized external phenomena such as weather and earthquake tremors and the inexactness of the behavior of hurricanes such as varying speeds and sizes.
The same phenomenon occurs when genes are being duplicated. The percentage of acquired genes from both the recessive and dominant partner in a couple may vary though the dominant genes have a higher chance of being duplicated while the recessive genes have a lower probability for duplication. There is a gene reproduction error tolerance which causes minute differences in the genetic code. The alteration of the code will mean that the code of the offspring is not exactly the same as that of the parents hence the difference in detailed identifier features such as the fingerprints and the personality. The error tolerance for gene reproduction may be caused by disturbance inputs from physical phenomena such as the minute random molecule movement of the amniotic fluid due to thermal activity or other bodily reactions caused by eating, exercising or other activities.
The environmental factors that give rise to the development of unique personality traits are the randomness of the sequence and type of experiences that influence the person’s thinking. The person has no control over the phenomenon that takes place in their external environment and therefore the events that occur in that external environment will cause alterations in the person’s mentality. The order and types of experiences that people encounter cannot be exactly the same for two different people because of the entropy that governs the occurrence of events.
The uniqueness and variation in human personality traits is the by-product of random statistical processes that is completely dominated by the entropy of the universe from the time the genes form to the time the person is born and receives data from their external environment which serve as experiences. This uniqueness has absolutely nothing to do with a divinity imparting a soul to the person.
IV. Refutation of divine intervention as the cause of the randomness of events and the occurrence of rare events:
People often interpret rare occurrences such as surviving an accident or the occurrence of freak weather phenomena as the cause of divine intervention or good luck but in reality these occurrences are the product of the entropic behavior of matter. The Law of Entropy and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that the behavior of the matter that comprises a system is not completely predictable and that there is a certain percentage tolerance error that causes the elementary particles comprising all systems not to move in perfectly predictable trajectories but the statistical probability of a particle’s behavior can be quantized by mathematical tools called wave functions which are used in quantum physics. It is a function typically of space or momentum or spin and possibly of time that returns the probability amplitude of a position or momentum for a subatomic particle. Mathematically, it is a function from a space that maps the possible states of the system into complex numbers. The laws of quantum physics such as the Schrödinger Equation describe how the wave function changes over time. The cause of the tolerance errors in a particle’s behavior can be traced to the fact that the energy used to excite the particle cannot travel in a perfectly uniform direction due to inefficiencies in the transfer of energy. And the inefficiencies in the transfer of energy can be traced to the Big Bang because the explosion of the singularity that caused particles to move into space did not transfer its energy in a perfectly uniform distribution which could be attributed to the differing intrinsic properties of elementary particles which have different responses to the energy inputted to them by the system and the non-uniform distribution of the particles compressed into the singularity. These principles can be used to explain the unpredictability of weather, events on the local and astrophysical scale, the impossibility of perfectly replicating mass produced objects on a subatomic scale due to machine tolerance errors, efficiency limits on energy conversion devices which cannot achieve 100% efficiency, the tolerance errors of calibrated measuring devices, and even the uniqueness of the DNA of offspring from all life forms.
The randomness of the events in the Universe can be described in completely mathematical and scientific terms and experiments on subatomic particles in High Energy Colliders have proven this. Therefore divine intervention in microscopic, local and cosmic events cannot occur.
Last edited by Jiang Jin on Sat Jul 10, 2010 9:42 am, edited 3 times in total.